To determine male infertility, semen analysis is conducted to evaluate the quality of sperms which substantially affects the chance of pregnancy. Semen analysis helps to determine:
- Sperm quantity: a low sperm count can be caused by blocked sperm duct (ejaculatory duct obstruction), limited or no sperm production due to abnormal testicular structure or function.
- Sperm motility: Sperm motility refers to the ability of sperm to move efficiently through the female reproductive tract to reach the mature egg for fertilization. Low sperm motility is one factor that prevents sperm from conceiving with the mature egg, leading to infertility.
- Sperm morphology: The abnormal shape of sperms can largely impair fertilization process. Particularly, the head shape is important since it affects the sperm’s ability to dissolve the outer surface of the mature egg and fertilize it.
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