Colorectal polyps are small clumps of cells that form on the lining of the colon and rectum. Colorectal cancer is the development of cancer cells from the colon or rectum. Sometimes polyps or cancerous tumors develop relatively close to the anal canal, a short tube at the end of the rectum through which stool leaves body, resulting in complicated treatment which essentially requires highly experienced multidisciplinary team to achieve the best possible treatment outcomes.
The rectum regulates the defecation process. It is consisted of an anal sphincter, a group of muscles at the end of the rectum that controls the release of stool, thereby maintaining continence. There are two sphincter muscles: internal and external sphincter muscles. Furthermore, sphincter muscles are regularly controlled by nervous systems. If polyps or tumors are found in the rectum fairly close to the anal canal, it usually requires rectal surgery that the entire rectum and sphincter muscles must be removed, causing difficulties in defecation. After surgery, patients have to be undergone “permanent colostomy” to make a permanent opening called a stoma for passing the stool out of the body.
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