The exact cause of the deterioration remains unknown, but other risk factors play a major role in development of AMD. These include:
- Advanced age: People aged over 75 are at 3 times greater risk of having AMD than people aged 65-74.
- Smoking: Smoking cigarettes significantly increases the risk of macular degeneration. Smokers are at 2 times greater risk of vision loss caused by AMD, compared to non smoking ones. Former smokers who have stopped smoking, risk of vision loss slightly increases with odd ratio 1.13. However, if smoking cessation lasts longer than 20 years, risks to develop vision loss due to AMD in former smokers are equivalent to non smoking groups.
- Genetics: This disease has a hereditary component since a number of researches have identified several genes that are related to developing the condition and responding to the treatments. This might be beneficial to treatment options in the future.
- Other contributing factors: Other conditions that might increase risk of AMD are:
- Cardiovascular disease;
- Being female;
- Being white people;
- High blood cholesterol;
- Farsightedness (hyperopia);
- Family history and
- Having light iris color.
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