Diagnosis Of AMD

Figure 1 from Automated detection and segmentation of drusen in retinal  fundus images | Semantic Scholar

Early detection and treatment of AMD can substantially help reducing vision loss and perhaps recovering vision in some instances. To confirm a diagnosis of AMD, several tests conducted by an ophthalmologist include:

  • Visual acuity which is the eye exam to measure the clearness or sharpness of vision.
  • The slit lamp exam, or also known as biomicroscopy that combines a microscope with a very bright light in order to look for eye injuries or diseases.
  • Using pupil dilation medications in form of eye drops to investigate eye abnormalities such as a mottled appearance caused by drusen. Sunglasses should be worn after the test and self-driving is not recommended since medications dilate pupils, causing side effects, such as blurred vision and light sensitivity which normally last for 4-6 hours.   
  • Fundus photography
  • Optical coherence tomography or OCT. OCT is non-invasive imaging test which displays detailed cross-sectional images of the retina. It identifies the area of retinal thinning, thickening or swelling which can be caused by fluid accumulations from leaking blood vessels in and under the retina.
  • In case that wet AMD is suspected, fundus fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography (FFA and ICGA) are needed for differential diagnosis in order to receive appropriate treatments accordingly.

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