Get To Know “Hemorrhoids”

What Are Hemorrhoids? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention | Everyday Health

Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the lower rectum and anus. The veins around the anus stretch due to increased pressure in the lower rectum e.g. pregnancy, being overweight or straining during bowel movements. It eventually leads bulging or enlarged vessels in the anus. Hemorrhoids might develop in different locations at the same time. Classified by locations, there are 2 types of hemorrhoids: 

  1. Internal hemorrhoids: Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the rectum and are covered with cells that line the rest of the intestines. They are deep inside the rectum and not visible from outside. Without complications, they do not usually produce rectal pain, discomfort or irritation in the anal region. However, the hemorrhoids might protrude through the rectum from strain during bowel movement.
  2. External hemorrhoids: External hemorrhoids are hemorrhoids that affect veins outside the anus. External bulges can be visibly seen and touched around the anal area. They are covered with cells that resemble skin, typically slightly less pink than the surrounding skin. Due to the irritation of surrounding nerve, symptoms might include pain or discomfort, itching or swelling around the anus and rectal bleeding that might be found during defecation.

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Get To Know “Hemorrhoids”

Hemorrhoids - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic

Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anus and lower rectum. The veins around the anus tend to stretch under pressure, causing bulge or swelling. This condition can develop from increased pressure in the lower rectum. Hemorrhoids might develop in different locations at the same time. Classified by locations, there are 2 types of hemorrhoids:

1.) Internal hemorrhoids

Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the rectum which located above the pectinate line and are covered with cells that are the same as those that line the rest of the intestines. Internal hemorrhoids cannot be typically seen or felt. Only using endoscopy, proctoscopy and sigmoidoscopy allows gastroenterologists to examine the inner lining of the rectum. Internal hemorrhoids can be stratified into 4 grades:

  • Grade I: The internal hemorrhoid bulges into the canal but does not prolapse. These may cause rectal bleeding.

  • Grade II: The hemorrhoid protrudes through the rectum with straining during a bowel movement. But it spontaneously returns to their original position once the straining has subsided after bowel movements.

  • Grade III: The hemorrhoid protrudes without any straining and requires the patient to push it inside manually.

  • Grade IV: The hemorrhoid protrudes and cannot be pushed back, causing discomfort and rectal pain.

2.) External hemorrhoids 

External hemorrhoids are hemorrhoids that affect veins outside the anus. External hemorrhoids arise below the pectinate line and are covered with cells that resemble skin which are typically slightly less pink than the surrounding skin. External bulges can be seen and touched around the anal area. Symptoms might include itching or irritation in the anal region, pain or discomfort, swelling around the anus and rectal bleeding.

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